Advertising

University Recreation & Student Health Center: The Students Speak

Student Researcher: Sam Accardo, Kelly Hansen, Kylee Lewis, Janae Theriot

Faculty Supervisor: Meghan Sanders

For a Complete Report of this Research, See:   Accardo, S., Hansen, K., Lewis, K., & Theriot, J. (2013). University Recreation & Student Health Center: The Students Speak.

Abstract: This research project is on how well the media being used by the University Recreation Center and Student Health Center is targeting the LSU students and ways to improve its media effects. Knowing what draws the students in and what pushes them away will help these facilities know how to get more people in the door.

The results of the secondary research showed that while all full-time and part-time students have access to the Student Health Center and the LSU University Recreation Center, they are not necessarily aware of their own benefits.

Our survey research revealed that 90% of participants agreed that they would go to the UREC more often if they saw more advertisements. Our studies have also shown that participants currently in a relationship are less likely to go to the gym than those participants who are single.  In terms of participants’ views of the Student Health Center, females are more inclined to use the Student Health Center Services than males are. This may also be attributed to the lack of advertisements put out by the health center.

Two focus groups were conducted: the first was held regarding participants feelings toward LSU’s University Recreation Center; the second focused on the Student Health Center.  In the first group, after sharing all of the resources among the group, the participants who generally had a negative view suddenly seemed more interested in going to the UREC and participating in at least one of these many events. Another big issue participants had with the UREC is the website that is less than user friendly. Those who had never visited the UREC but had visited their website said that this contributed to why they had never gone. Both males and females supported separate workout areas for men and women. In the second group,  students approach the Student Health Center with caution regarding how much it is going to cost them out of pocket for a visit. Also, arking is a huge problem for the Student Health Center.  Moreover, participants said if the website was difficult to navigate, then the facility must be difficult as well. This adds to the intimidation factor many students feel when thinking about the SHC.

The Doctor, The Baker, and The Medicine Maker

Student Researcher: Laura Crosswell (PhD)

Faculty Supervisor: Lance Porter (Associate Professor)

For a Complete Report of this Research, See:   Crosswell, L. (2012). The Doctor, The Baker, and The Medicine Maker. This manuscript is based on a dissertation project.

Abstract: Aiming to reveal the potential impact of pharmaceutical branding on consumer healthcare communications, this study introduces a physiological component to brand awareness research. Janiszewski and Bickart (1994) argue that while message attendance is a critical variable in advertising effectiveness and a “tremendous amount of money [is] spent on buying consumer attention, little to no research is done on attention” (p. 329).  Resonating this notion, other scholars have recognized that, “while studies in other areas have made direct links between eye-tracking measures and cognitive processing, there has been very limited reporting of such information in either advertising or consumer behavior measures” (Krugman, et al., 1994,p.42). This investigation addresses the research deficit by comparingmicro-level behaviors with self-reported measurements of brand awareness.

Using eye-tracking technology, as well as pre and post-test questionnaires, the following work introduces physiological indicators of message involvement to more clearly determine ways in which sponsorship recognition shapes viewer attitudes toward the Gardasil vaccination.

Understanding the Effectiveness of Ecolabels: Exploring Message Formats, Context-Induced Moods, and Issue-Relevant Determinants

Faculty Researcher: Yongick Jeong

Student Researcher: Young Kim

For a Complete Report of this Research, See:   Jeong, Y., & Kim, Y (2012). Understanding the Effectiveness of Ecolabels: Exploring Message Formats, Context-Induced Moods, and Issue-Relevant Determinants. This paper was presented at the annual conference of the Association of Education Journalism and Mass Communication, Washington D.C. 2013.

Abstract: This study examines how young adults process ecolabels (environmental warning labels) for three environmental products/conditions by determining the effectiveness of warnings in different message formats (ad and public service announcement, PSA) across different context-induced moods (positive and negative) as well as the impacts of various issue-relevant factors. The findings indicate that the evaluations of ecolabels are significantly influenced by various determinants, and these factors showed different patterns of influences for each product category.

Read Responsibly: The Processing of Warning Messages by Young Adults in Differing Message Conditions

Faculty Researcher: Yongick Jeong

For a Complete Report of this Research, See: Jeong, Y. (2012). Read Responsibly: The Processing of Warning Messages by Young Adults in Differing Message Conditions.

Abstract: This study investigated the composite impact of warning labels in various conditions. Two experiments, via a two-way mixed-repeated design, were conducted and found that warning labels perform differently based on message format (advertisements vs. public service announcements, PSAs), message mood structure (positive vs. negative) and different product category (drinking, smoking, and texting). The overall findings suggest that warning labels were more memorable in ads. However, participants evaluated warning labels in PSAs, particularly in negative mood-inducing PSAs, more favorably than those in ads. Interestingly, warning labels are not associated with intention of behavioral changes. Interaction effects were also examined and practical implications are discussed.

Determinants of Warning Label Effectiveness: The Interplay Among Message Formats, Context-Induced Moods, and Personal Interests

Faculty Researcher: Yongick Jeong

For a Complete Report of this Research, See: Jeong, Y. (2012). Determinants of Warning Label Effectiveness: The Interplay Among Message Formats, Context-Induced Moods, and Personal Interests. This Paper was presented at the annual conference of International Communication Association.

Abstract: Because of the potentially harmful results associated with misuse/overuse of certain products, some products are mandated to include warning information about product usage in their advertisements. This study examined how young adults process warning labels in three product categories (drinking, smoking, and texting) by determining the effectiveness of warnings in different message formats (ads and public service announcements, PSAs) across different context-induced moods (positive and negative). This study also explored how various personal determinants influence the success of warning labels for different health/safety products. This study found warning labels placed within ads were more effective in two memory-based measures (recall and recognition) while those in PSAs were more effective in attitude (toward message containing warnings) and behavior (intention for behavioral change) measures. This study also observed that warning label performance is influenced by various determinants including context-induced moods, and these factors showed different patterns of influences for each product category.

Credibility and Identification of Celebrity Endorsers: A Study of Gender, Age and Sexual Orientation

Student Researchers: Kristen M. Higdon, Silvia I. Medrano, Viktorya Mirzoyan, Jessy L. Hutchinson, and Ana P. Simán

Faculty Supervisor: Meghan Sanders

For a Complete Report of this Research, See: Higdon, K. M., Medrano, S. I., Mirzoyan, V., Hutchinson, J. L., & Simán, A. P. (2012). Credibility and Identification of Celebrity Endorsers: A Study of Gender, Age and Sexual Orientation. This paper was a project as part of the “Introduction to Research Method in Mass Communication” graduate course.

Abstract:

The use of celebrity endorsers is an increasingly popular advertising strategy in various markets. How people perceive celebrities is a key factor in how consumers and voters view products, brands, and political candidates (McCracken, 2005). Identification with a celebrity endorser, both individually and culturally, is an important facet in successful advertising (McCracken, 2005).

This study examined how the level of participant identification, and how a celebrity’s age, gender and sexual orientation influences credibility of the celebrity endorser. Roobina Ohanian (1990) researched the different components of source credibility (i.e. expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness), which she asserts contributes to the successful measure of celebrity endorsers. Cohen (2001) states that identification with media characters involves feeling an affinity and similarity with the characters. Prior advertising research concerning the celebrity endorser’s credibility examines the celebrity’s age and gender but none exists that analyzes the impact sexual orientation has on the celebrity endorser’s credibility.

The theories of social comparison and parasocial interaction are significant to the current study in that they both investigate the relationship between the audience and the celebrity endorsers. Social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954) posits that people base their own abilities and values off of what they observe of others. Parasocial interaction theory (Horton & Wohl, 1956) claims that people, if exposed, will psychologically process media characters in a manner similar to the way they interact in their immediate face-to-face relations.

For the purpose of this study, the researchers created eight celebrity advertisements using two heterosexual female/male, younger/older celebrity endorsers and two homosexual female/male, younger/older celebrity endorsers. Due to the company’s applicability to a broad audience, the advertisements were made to resemble current Glaceau Smart Water print ads, and utilized the company’s logo, tag line, and bottle. The survey sample evaluated a randomly assigned celebrity endorser using Ohanian’s (1990) 15-item semantic differential source credibility scale and a revised version of Cohen’s (2001) identification scale.

Results from the online survey of 194 participants demonstrate that as participants indicate stronger identification with the celebrity endorser, the celebrity endorser credibility also increases. This finding shows how identification has a significant main effect on the celebrity endorser’s ratings of credibility. For marketing and advertising purposes, professionals should consider the gender and age of their target audience, so that possible identification with celebrity endorsers is utilized for maximum potential. This study provides new insights concerning the sexual orientation of the celebrity endorser. In terms of attractiveness, heterosexual celebrities received higher ratings than homosexual celebrities. However, homosexual celebrities received higher trustworthiness scores compared to heterosexual celebrities.

The present study could be the basis for future research regarding attitude change in consumer studies. Researchers recommend that future studies focus on explicit and implicit purchasing motivations that are a result of changes in attitude based on the celebrity endorsers attractiveness, trustworthiness, and expertise.

An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Realistic Body Portrayal on Advertising: Social Comparison Theory and Self-Esteem

Graduate Student Researcher: A-Reum Jung

Faculty Supervisor: Jun Heo

For a Complete Report of this Research, See :

Jung, A., & Heo, J. (2016). An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Realistic Body Portrayal on Advertising: Social Comparison Theory and Self-Esteem. This paper is to presented at the annual conference of the International Communication Association (ICA), Fukuoka, Japan.

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of discrepancy between body size of ad models and viewers of the ad. The results of a discrepancy analysis between self-body size and model-body size mostly supported that downward comparison (i.e., the exposure to ad model that are larger than and similar to own body size) produces better advertising outcomes. Another purpose was to examine a possible moderating role of self-esteem during the comparison process, and the results reveled that self-esteem plays a moderating role in defining attitude toward the model and purchase intention. Self-esteem was, however, found to have a minimum—if any—role in explaining attitude toward the ad and the brand. This study argues that if realistic ad model positively affects the effectiveness of advertising, advertisers should limit using Photoshopped-body images, and it will mitigate the need for the Truth in Adverting Act 2014. The researchers of the current study hope that the findings help accelerate the ‘real beauty’ movement.

All Eyes on Privacy: An Eye-Tracking Study Examining the Relationship between Privacy Concerns and Socially-Referred Native Ads on Social Networking Sites

 

Graduate Student Researcher: A-Reum Jung

Faculty Supervisor: Jun Heo

For a Complete Report of this Research, See :

Jung, A., & Heo, J. (2016). All Eyes on Privacy: An Eye-Tracking Study Examining the Relationship between Privacy Concerns and Socially-Referred Native Ads on Social Networking Sites. This paper is to presented at the annual conference of the International Communication Association (ICA), Fukuoka, Japan.

Abstract:

This study examined the influence of friend referrals in advertisements on social networking sites. Specifically, we examined whether native advertisements that included friend referrals attracted more attention than native advertisements that did not include friend referrals. Further, the study examined whether participants with higher privacy concerns reacted differently to friend referrals than did individuals with lower privacy concerns. Results suggested that advertisements with friend referrals did not attract greater attention overall. Further, individuals with high privacy concerns actually spent less time fixating on ads with friend referrals than ads without friend referrals.

Can You See: An Eye-Tracking Approach to Examine the Effectiveness of Native Advertisements on Social Networking Sites

Faculty Researchers: Yongick Jeong, Lance Porter, Kasey Windels, Jun Heo

Graduate Student Researchers: Rui Wang & A-Reum Jung

For a Complete Report of this Research, See :

Jeong, Y., Porter, L., Windels, K., Wang, Rui, Jung, A-Reum, & Heo, J. (2016). Can You See: An Eye-Tracking Approach to Examine the Effectiveness of Native Advertisements on Social Networking Sites. Paper accepted to Annual Conference of the International Communication Association.

Abstract:

Using an eye-tracking approach, we conducted a natural quasi-experiment to examine the effectiveness of native ads on social networking sites (SNSs). Our findings indicate that while native ads are more discoverable than display ads, display ads are more effective in generating cognitive processing and depth of focus than native ads.  We also found that native ads are more effective on Facebook than on Twitter. Additionally, static and text format native ads significantly outperformed video format native ads on the two SNSs.

All Eyes on Privacy: An Eye-Tracking Study Examining the Relationship between Privacy Concerns and Socially-Referred Native Ads on Social Networking Sites

Faculty Researchers: Kasey Windels, Yongick Jeong, Lance Porter, Jun Heo

Graduate Student Researchers: Rui Wang & A-Reum Jung

For a Complete Report of this Research, See:

Windels, K., Jeong, Y., Porter, L., Jung, A., Wang, R., & Heo, J.  (2016). All Eyes on Privacy: An Eye-Tracking Study Examining the Relationship between Privacy Concerns and Socially-Referred Native Ads on Social Networking Sites. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Advertising in Seattle, WA.

Abstract:

This study examined the influence of friend referrals in advertisements on social networking sites. Specifically, we examined whether native advertisements that included friend referrals attracted more attention than native advertisements that did not include friend referrals. Further, the study examined whether participants with higher privacy concerns reacted differently to friend referrals than did individuals with lower privacy concerns. Results suggested that advertisements with friend referrals did not attract greater attention overall. Further, individuals with high privacy concerns actually spent less time fixating on ads with friend referrals than ads without friend referrals.

Disclosure or Deception?:Identification of Native Advertising in Social Media Environments

Faculty Researchers: Lance Porter, Kasey Windels, Yongick Jeong, Jun Heo

Graduate Student Researchers: Rui Wang & A-Reum Jung

For a Complete Report of this Research, See:

Windels, K., Jeong, Y., Porter, L., Jung, A., Wang, R., & Heo, J.  (2015).  Disclosure or Deception?:Identification of Native Advertising in Social Media Environments. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication in San Francisco, CA.

Abstract:

The rise of native advertising presents a number of ethical issues for today’s audiences. Do social media audiences recognize native advertising as paid messaging?  Does media literacy make a difference in this ability to distinguish editorial and user-generated content from paid advertisements? An eye-tracking study found that while most can identify native advertising, certain types of native advertising are more difficult than others to identify. Further the study found that Facebook is not fully disclosing paid content.